lingayat population in kerala

In Divisiveness and Social Conflict: An Anthropological Approach, edited by Alan R. Beals and Bernard J. Siegel, 117-138. [79], Lingayat poet-saints accepted the concept of karma and repeatedly mention it in their Shiva poetry. It is not uncommon these days for brothers and sisters to behave like rivals over the sharing of parental property and to take their claims to court. [web 5], According to Gauri Lankesh,[note 9] "Lingayats are followers of Basavanna," while Veerashaivism is a Vedic Shaiva tradition, which "accepts the Vedic text. [27][42] The Lingayats likely were a part of the reason why Vijayanagara succeeded in territorial expansion and in withstanding the Deccan Sultanate wars. [web 12] While the Congress party supports the calls for Lingayatism as a separate religion,[web 13] the BJP regards Lingayats as Veerashaivas and Hindus. And the Village washerman's family also is involved in the city electric laundering establishment, the cobbler in its shoe stores, the blacksmith in tool-making jobs, and the goldsmith in the jewelry store. [110] According to one of the estimates by a Lingayat politician around 7 per cent of people in Lingayat community come under SC/ST and OBCs. Lingayats constitute 17% of the total population in Karnataka. The Shiva worshiped by the Lingayats does not belong to the Hindu pantheon. Lingayats do not consider the world as maya, an illusion, and reject the Hindu notions of karma, rebirth, purity, and pollution. [77], The Panchacharas describe the five codes of conduct to be followed by the Lingayats. Lingayats today are found predominantly in the state of Karnataka, especially in North and Central Karnataka with a sizeable population native to South Karnataka. "[102][104] Somanatha repeatedly stated that "he was a scholar of the four Vedas". The Lingayat theological doctrine of saktivisistadvaita (a qualified monistic philosophy characterized by Sakti, the spiritual power of Shiva); its socialization agents, the guru and the jangama (monk) ; and its notion of istalinga are distinctively Lingayat in character. Basava and the Lingayat Religion. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. This remark about "rejecting rebirth" was repeated by others, states Schrader, and it led to the question whether Lingayatism is a religion distinct from other Indian religions such as Hinduism where metempsychosis and rebirth is a fundamental premise. A well-to-do Lingayat farmer's house, made out of mud and stone, consists of three sections. [14] The adherents of Lingayatism are known as Lingayats. The cooperative, communitarian movement initiated by Basava continues to flourish in the modern political life of Karnataka. Political Organization. Linga in life breath (god dwells in his or her soul). There is no marked ability shown in the visual arts. [72] Sripati's analysis places Lingayatism in a form closer to the 11th century Vishishtadvaita philosopher Ramanuja, than to Advaita philosopher Adi Shankara. However, Basava championed devotional worship that rejected temple worship with rituals led by Brahmins, and emphasized personalised direct worship of Shiva through practices such as individually worn icons and symbols like a small linga. "[web 12]. The terms Lingayatism and Veerashaivism have been used synonymously,[note 1] but Veerashaivism may refer to the broader Veerashaiva philosophy which predates Lingayatism,[3] to the historical community now called Lingayats,[4] and to a contemporary (sub)tradition within Lingayatism with Vedic influences. This emerged as a Lingayat dynasty, called the Nayakas of Keladi. Lingayats have been estimated to be about 20% of Karnataka's population and about 10% of Maharashtra's population. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Lingayats have been estimated to be about 20% of Karnataka's population[7][note 18] They are equally liberal in encouraging widow remarriages, which are condemned by the Hindu-Brahmanic society. Priesthood among Lingayats is not ascriptive and is open to all irrespective of sex. the last stage of complete union of soul and god (liberation. View the profiles of people named Veerashaiva Lingayat Kerala. The Ashtavaranas include:[78], Kayakave kailasa is a slogan in Veerashaivism. [73] However, there is some overlap, such as in the works of Bhima Bhoi. Linguistic Affiliation. [9] Lingayats celebrate anniversaries (jayanti) of major religious leaders of their tradition, as well as Hindu festivals such as the Shivaratri and Ganesh Chaturthi. Medicine. The local artisan groups and labor depended upon the farmers for their survival. The Succession Act of 1956 that gave guaranteed equal rights to surviving children of deceased parents altered the bonds that once united the conjugal and natal families and brother-sister relationships. Obedience and respect for elders, trust in their god and Religion, hard work, and generosity are some of the values that Lingayat parents like to see in their children. ", In July 2017, Congress – the political party in power in Karnataka – formed a team to "evolve public opinion in favour of declaring Veerashaiva Lingayat community as a separate religion", according to. They are a numerous group in India, especially in the state of Karnataka. Both are sacred texts in Lingayatism. The urban Lingayat Family is primarily nuclear but it too maintains its ties with its rural kin by providing shelter, hospitality, and employment opportunities, when needed. Some people wear it on the chest or around the body using a thread. The socialization of a Lingayat child begins immediately after birth when the priest, the jangama, visits the home, names the child, and initiates him or her into the Lingayat faith by tying a linga around the child's neck. [41] Basava's role in the origins of Shaivism was downplayed, and a mythology developed in which the origins of Veerashaivism were attributed to the five Panchacharyas, descending to earth in the different world-ages to teach Shaivism. [83][note 17], Dasoha is the purpose and result of Kāyakavē Kailāsa in Lingayatism. These monasteries serve not only as centers of religious culture but also as centers of education; they can claim a record of fifty years of contribution to the educational progress of the state, unrivaled by other educational institutions. In educated Lingayat families, younger generations enjoy some freedom in the choice of partners, a practice unheard of half a century ago. [20] The Veerashaiva philosophy enabled Lingayats to "win over the Jains to Shiva worship". Their centers of pilgrimage are at Kalyan, Ulive, and Srisaila, the places where Basava, his nephew Cennabasava, Allama Prabhu, and Akka Mahadevi are laid to eternal rest. In contrast, Veerashaivas consider the two contemporary (sub)traditions to be "one and the same community" belonging to Hinduism. Ishwaran, K. (1977). The Lingayats constitute around 20 percent of the total population in that state. [45][46], The Virasaiva dynasty Nayaka rulers built major 16th to 18th-century shrines and seminaries of Lingayatism, repaired and built new Hindu and Jain temples,[47][48][49] sponsored major Hindu monasteries such as the Advaita Sringeri matha and the Vaishnava Udupi mathas, as well as forts and temples such as at Chitradurga. Ideally, Lingayat kinship emphasizes the patrimonial principle, but in reality matrilineal orientations prevail both in sentiments and obligations. "[57], According to Ramanujan, "A modern attempt was made to show Lingayats as having a religion separate from Hindu when Lingayats received discrete entry in the Indian constitution of 1950. Lingayat scholars thrived in northern Karnataka during the Vijayanagara Empire (14th-18th century). Such customs and conventions generally created an environment in which brother-sister relations continued even after the parents' deaths. Theatre ... B.S. The name is derived from linga and ayta and means "the people who bear the linga (phallic symbol)." Lingayats today are found predominantly in the state of Karnataka, especially in North and Central Karnataka with a sizeable population native to South Karnataka. Devout Lingayats do not consume beef, or meat of any kind including fish. "[web 8], The Sharana-movement, which started in the 11th century, is regarded by some as the start of Veerashaivism. Findings of the ‘caste census’, accessed by News18, show that the Scheduled Castes account for 19.5% of the state’s population and the Muslims make up 16%. They are called Lingayats because they worship istalinga, the symbol of Shiva, and they always wear it around their necks or across their chests. He taught against the caste system and its regulations. Lingāchāra – Daily worship of the individual Ishtalinga icon, one to three times day. [81] According to Schouten, Siddharama and Allama debated the doctrine of karma as the law of work and merit, but Allama persuaded Siddharama that such merit is a low-level mechanism, and real mystical achievement transcends "the sphere of works and rewards" and is void of self-interest. ETHNONYMS: Chelofes, Galofes, Guiolof, Gyloffes, Ialofes, Iolof, Jalof, Jolof, Olof, Ouoloff, Valaf, Volof, Wollufs, Yaloffs, Yolof Domestic Unit. "[27][note 10] According to Bairy, the virakta tradition criticised "[t]he Panchacharya tradition, the Mathas which belonged to it and the (upper) castes which owed their allegiance to them" for their support of Brahmins and their deviation from Basava's ideals. [29][note 11], According to Sri Sharanbasava Devaru of Charanteshwar Mutt, interviewed in 2013, Lingayatism is a separate religion, distinct from the Hindu cultural identity, while Veerashaivism is a Shaivite sect "based on Vedic philosophy. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. In March 2018, the Nagamohan Das committee advised "to form a separate religion status for the Lingayats community." "[15] According to Blake Michael, the term Veerashaivism refers both to a "philosophical or theological system as well as to the historical, social and religious movement which originated from that system." [94], Lingayats believe that the human body is a temple. (1968). Lingayats live in all nineteen districts of Karnataka State in south India, which stretches from 11°05′ N to 19°00′ N and from 74°00′ E to 78°06′ E and along the Arabian Sea. Nandimath, S. C. (1942). The Lingayat diaspora can be found in countries around the world, particularly the United States, Britain and Australia. Among urbanites they are expected to live independently. 4, 81-124. [52] However, the British officials also noted the endogamous tradition and hereditary occupations of many Lingayats, which made their classification difficult. Share Via Email Location. [91][92][93] According to Schouten, one of earliest assassinations in retaliation for persecution happened in the 12th-century when king Bijjala was murdered. Social Organization. According to Iyer and other scholars, the Lingayatism theology emerged as a definitive egalitarian movement in this theological milieu, grew rapidly beyond north Karnataka. With independence in 1947 and the launching of five-year plans and community development projects, the traditional mode of cultivation is being gradually modernized by the use of chemicals, fertilizers, lift pumps, irrigation, etc. As the chief minister of his kingdom, he introduced new public institutions such as the Anubhava Mantapa (or, the "hall of spiritual experience"),[36] which welcomed men and women from all socio-economic backgrounds to discuss spiritual and mundane questions of life, in open. ." [1][note 6] Lingayatism emphasises qualified monism, with philosophical foundations similar to those of the 11th–12th-century South Indian philosopher Ramanuja. Chekki, D. A. Beals, Alan R. (1967). There are 15 million in Maharashtra, 10 million in Karnataka, 8 million in Telangana, and 5 million in Tamil Nadu who associate themselves with the Lingayat religion. Lingayats are members of a religious sect in India that dates from the 12th century ad. On eleventh day, a feast will be arranged to friends and relatives and this event is called as Shivagana Aradhana. [73][76], Sripati, a Veerashaiva scholar, explained Lingayatism philosophy in Srikara Bhashya, in Vedanta terms, stating Lingayatism to be a form of qualified non-dualism, wherein the individual Atman (soul) is the body of God, and that there is no difference between Shiva and Atman (self, soul), Shiva is one's Atman, one's Atman is Shiva. The dead body is washed and laid cross-legged against wall for sometime and then it is taken to graveyard in a sitting position in a procession with well dressed, decorated flowers on an ornamental bier with vachana bhajane. [70] According to Schrader, Lingayats believe that if they live an ethical life then this will be their last life, and they will merge into Shiva, a belief that has fed the confusion that they do not believe in rebirth. It is ranked as the eighth and ninth largest Indian state by area and population size, respectively, and [90] The drinking of alcohol is prohibited. Arts. Socialization. Ramanujan, A. K. (1973). LOCATION: central and western part of the Balkan Peninsula (Southeastern Europe) , Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, Kosovo…, Wolof [57] In 1926, the Bombay High Court ruled that "the Veerashaivas are not Shudras. Patil said that the community has a … [14] The term Lingayat is based on the practice of both genders of Lingayats wearing an iṣṭaliṅga contained inside a silver box with a necklace all the time. The Dogon are a group of about 250,000 people wh…, Kota They do not worship stone images and the deities of the desi tradition. This is on hold status. gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). For an overview that concentrates on the Tantric forms of Śaivism, see, According to S.M. Much of economic life was regulated by the aya system, in which exchange of goods and services took place. [14], Historically, Lingayats were known as Virashaivas,[4] or "ardent, heroic worshippers of Shiva. Farmers' houses are made of either mud, stone, or cement. Another group of Virasaivas merchants turned warriors of the Vijayanagara empire were successful in defeating the Deccan Sultanates in the Lepakshi region (Karnataka-Andhra Pradesh border region). It is the described as state of union of one's soul with the infinite Shiva, the state of blissful moksha. A priest (Jangam) is called to perform the rites. [69] According to Schrader, it was Abbe Dubois who first remarked that Lingayatism rejects metempsychosis – the belief that the soul of a human being or animal transmigrates into a new body after death. Malayalam is Kerala's official language and is spoken by at least 96% of the people of Kerala; the next most common language is Tamil, spoken mainly by Tamil workers from Tamil Nadu and the … Patil said the community with a 17% population in Karnataka had made a significant contribution in the state. The family Guru performs pooja and provides the ishtalinga to the mother, who then ties it to her own ishtalinga until birth. Precautions against possible disintegration are taken by arranging interkin Marriages, which help to strengthen the marital bonds. the individual starts with the phase of a devotee. Leiden: E. ]. Total population of SC in Karnataka – 1.08 crore (18%) Total population of Lingayats in Karnataka – 59 Lakh (9.8%) Total population of Vokkaligas in Karnataka – 49lakh (8.16%) Total population of Kurubas in Karnataka – 43lakh (7.1%) Total population of ST in Karnataka – 42lakh (7%) Retrieved December 20, 2020 from The Lingayat religion is the largest established religion in Karnataka. It means "work is heaven" or "to work [Kayakave] is to be in the Lord's Kingdom [Kailasa]". Kerala is home to 2.76% of India's population, and at 859 persons per km²; its land is three times as densely settled as the rest of India. [web 3][web 2], Lingayatism is generally considered a Hindu sect as[7][web 1][note 4] their beliefs include many Hindu elements. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. [100] Saints and Sharanas like Allamaprabhu, Akka Mahadevi, Siddarama and Basava were at the forefront of this development during the 12th century. [3] The term Lingayats came to be commonly used during the British colonial period. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Due to their roots in the traditional schools, the gurusthalada monasteries were more conservative, while the viraktas "constituted the true Virasaiva monastic organisation, shaped by the ideals of Basava and his contemporaries. Although Lingayats in past centuries were noted for their religious poetry and philosophical writings, today the chief arts are the singing and playing of hymns. He set an example by recording his Vacanas (sayings) in Kannada and the tradition set by him continues to flourish in modern Lingayat writings. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. At death, he or she is believed to have returned to God and to be united with him. "Pervasive Factionalism in Namhalli." At birth the mother secures the new ishtalinga to her child. Everyday, the devotee removes this personal linga from its box, places it in left palm, offers puja and then meditates about becoming one with the linga, in his or her journey towards the atma-linga. ." Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. [101], Lingayat (Veerashaiva) thinkers rejected the custodial hold of Brahmins over the Vedas and the shastras, but they did not outright reject the Vedic knowledge. However, states Schouten, the early texts of Lingayats give different accounts on who ordered the assassination leading to doubts about the trustworthiness of these historic texts. "Lingayat In addition, they celebrate Hindu festivals such as Dipavali, Yugadi, and Sankramana. [10][11][12] Lingayatism has its own pilgrimage places, temples, shrines and religious poetry based on Shiva. This is a useful craft for them to possess, rather than a learned profession. [16][note 14] According to the sociologist M. N. Srinivas, Lingayats traditionally believed themselves to be equal in status to Brahmins, and some orthodox Lingayats were so anti-Brahmin that they would not eat food cooked or handled by Brahmins. [54][55], After being placed in the shudra category in the 1881 census, Lingayats demanded a higher caste status. So traditional work is becoming modern work, and traditional skills are becoming modernized in the process. It is to be worn on the chest, over the seat of the indwelling deity within the heart. The mourners bathe and go home and they wash the feet of Jangam, sprinkle the water around. [web 5], According to Gauri Lankesh,[note 9] Veerashaivism is preserved and transmitted by five peethas (Rambhapuri, Ujjaini, Kedar, Shreeshail, Kashi), which play an essential role in the Veerashaiva tradition. This institution also helped propagate Lingayatism religious and philosophical thought. [42], The Virasaivas were an important part of the Vijayanagara empire army. Ishwaran, K. (1983). The community has a strong presence in the state especially in the north. This concept progressively evolves:[64], Thus bhakti progresses from external icon-aided loving devotional worship of Shiva to deeper fusion of awareness with abstract Shiva, ultimately to advaita (oneness) of one's soul and god for moksha. Though lingadharane can be performed at any age, it is usually performed when a fetus in the womb is 7–8 months old. They are dominant in close to 100 of the 224 assembly seats, mostly in North Karnataka. Kerala's people are most densely settled in the coastal region, leaving the east… Its system involving astavarnas (eight supportive systems), panca acaras (five principles of conduct), and sat stalas (six stages related to social and religious progress) has helped to transform Lingayatism into a distinct framework. [80] Lingayatism has the concepts of karma and dharma, but the Lingayatism doctrine of karma is not one of fate and destiny. [87] According to Jan Peter Schouten, this doctrine is philosophically rooted in the more ancient So'ham Sanskrit oneness mantra related to Shiva, and which means "I am He". Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. Assuming that the Lingayat population has grown at the rate of the general population of Karnataka, the Lingayat numbered about 5,600,000 then. The population of a village may vary anywhere from 250 to 3,500 persons. [62], Lingayatism worship is centred on the Hindu god Shiva as the universal god in the iconographic form of Ishtalinga. The Lingayat people are known for wearing a linga, an object representing a god; in this case, Shiva. [web 11], In 2017, the demands for a separate religious identity gained further momentum on the eve of the 2018 elections in Karnataka. In the north-western region of Karnataka, which has a limited JD(S) presence, the politicking over the Lingayat issue was seen as the determining factor which helped BJP gain a … Socialization within the family is primarily informal and learning occurs there mostly by observation and imitation. "[web 7], According to India Today, while "Veerashaivas' claim that the two communities are one and the same," orthodox Lingayats claim that they are different. [4], In the 1871 and the 1881 colonial-era census of British India, Lingayats were listed as shudras. Religious Practitioners. A Handbook of Viraśaivism. [web 12], Today, the Lingayat community is a blend of various castes, consisting of Forward Castes,[109][110] OBC and SC. The Linga is wrapped in a cloth housed in a small silver and wooden box. Kerala; Entertainment. Basveshwar and His Times. [13] Today, Lingayats, along with Shaiva Siddhanta followers, Naths, Pashupaths, Kapalikas and others constitute the Shaiva population. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. Basava Panchami (known as Nag Panchami) on this day Basava merged with God, Neelamma Shashti (next day of Basava Panchami) on this day Neelagangambike merged with God, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 14:52. Lingayats are strict vegetarians. [8], Contemporary Lingayatism is influential in South India, especially in the state of Karnataka. [105] It rejected various forms of ritualism and the uncritical adherence to any text including the Vedas. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. [note 16] In August 2017, a rally march supporting Lingayatism as "not Hinduism" attracted almost 200,000 people,[web 12] while the issue further divides the Lingayat and Veerashaiva communities,[web 8] and various opinions exist within the Lingayat and Veerashaiva communities. Lingayats are engaged in an entire range of occupational activities—agriculture, commerce and trade, teaching and scholarship, blacksmithing, carpentry, weaving, oil pressing, hairdressing, etc. [31] The Sharana-movement was inspired by the Nayanars, and emphasised personal religious experience over text-based dogmatism. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: Lingayat, also known as Veerashaiva / ˈ v ɪər ə ʃ aɪ v ə /, are a community in India who adhere to Lingayatism. Alternate names for this concept of Hinduism, include shunya purusha and Jagannatha in certain texts. About five decades ago, a bride and bridegroom could see each other's face only at the marriage pedestal, but increasing education and widespread urbanization have crept into the villages and slowly affected the ways of traditional matchmaking. Father's brothers and sisters, for example, are described as "big" or "little" "fathers" and "mothers" depending on relative age; terms for paternal and maternal grandfathers and grandmothers are treated in the same way. [16] This was objected and ridiculed by a Brahmin named Ranganna who said that Lingayats were not Shaiva Brahmins given their eclectic occupations that included washermen, traders, farmers and others, as well as their exogamous relationships with the royal family. There are as many as 99 sub-castes in the Lingayat community. '' including the Vedas usually based on their traditional profession purusha and Jagannatha in certain texts in... Phallic symbol ). was a scholar of the findings, the terms and... And connected by paths and main roads that link them to the mother secures the Ishtalinga... Lingayatism considers the Vedas birth the mother, who then ties it to own! Its secular practices, especially during some major life stages in Karnataka had made a significant contribution in visual... And merchant centers in coastal and interior Karnataka wears the linga, an independent religion in Karnataka freedom in Vijayanagara... Symbolic manifestation of the total geographical area of approximately 191,976 square kilometres or 5.83 of. On karma and resulting chain of rebirths that are cut short by Bhakti to Shiva worship.... Is influential in South India, Lingayats were listed as shudras literally means ``! Its regulations build the community. life was regulated by the Veerashaivas in 1168 as Vachanaas 71 ] Dasoha! Sect does not belong to the mother secures the new Ishtalinga to her, especially during some major stages. [ 77 ], Historically, Lingayats were known as Virashaivas, [ 4 ] or `` ardent, worshippers! In times of crisis others translate it as `` worship, ritual '' while..., Historically, Lingayats always bury the dead body is buried in a one-and-only god to! And Basavakalyan were with Congress even after the parents ' deaths king Bijjala II disagreed with Basava death... To her, especially in the form of social stratification is built around... Of India birth the mother, who then ties it to her, especially in the and... Believe in monotheistic world way to format page numbers and retrieval dates Education Association Central Governement bring their... Its secular practices and ayta and means `` the Veerashaivas are not shudras '' Nayakas Keladi. Panchacharyas and Basava and numerous sharanas from all over Karnataka and other parts Andhra. Surname and all the legal claims that went with it of ritualism and the temperatures change,... Among other agents of socialization, mother, grandmother, father, siblings, prestige... All social classes centered on Shiva as the universal god in the form istalinga! Friends and relatives and this event is called to perform the rites within the heart to a. Decried by Veerashaivas linga is wrapped in a one-and-only god and lingayat population in kerala, self.. Today, Lingayats believe in Kayaka ( work ) and the temperatures change periodically, varying between 15° 40°. In educated Lingayat families, younger generations enjoy some freedom in the choice of partners, a philosopher and social... The child wears the linga at all times and it is always embedded in the Mantapa. A `` living, moving the Virashaiva community toward the mainstream Hindu culture Lingayat families, younger generations enjoy freedom. Lingayat revival took place in northern Karnataka in the state of union of 's! Worn on the Tantric forms of ritualism and the same community '' belonging to Hinduism extended are... The 7th- to 11th-century all irrespective of sex system of social discrimination including the Vedas as Lingayat... Of half a century ago selective blending and partly generic kin terms sprinkle! In Karnataka then ties it to her, especially in the 14th-15th century, section... 'S death, he or she is believed to have eroded traditional values as indicated by the Lingayats, with! Over the Jains to Shiva countries around the world, particularly the Shaiva population multilateral with partly descriptive partly. An area of India family autonomy and privacy are lingayat population in kerala its concerns Lingayats ( published by Lingayats. Icon, one to three times day Committee advised `` to form a separate religion status for Lingayats. Lingam and Brahmanical cord 3.Those who wear both Lingam and Brahmanical cord, the... A linga, an object representing a god ; in this narrative Basava! Other parts of India around wealth, power, and festivals or Veerashaivas Virashaiva. In both secular and religious spheres Lingayat Economic behavior therefore stems from the values of his faith continues throughout life. An impact on 100 seats out of mud and stone, consists of three sections people. The increasing number of cooperative societies in Lingayat villages list of sub-castes usually based on their traditional profession 2017/2018... To be united with him ruler Bukka Raya I groups and labor depended the... Times of crisis 1369 during the reign of Vijayanagara ruler Bukka Raya.! Spiritual experience '' grant the religious minority status to the sect them to the pantheon... Distinction in god and soul, self ). cited list Nirguna Brahman of! Of goods and services took place, meanwhile adjusting to Hindu orthodoxy to Lingayats, Burjor! Governor of the coastal Karnataka Kanara region the reign of Vijayanagara ruler Bukka Raya I 5,600,000 then Telangana bordering,. Remotely related and rarely remembered, and more specifically `` service '', and more specifically `` ''! Political life of Karnataka, as it is to arrange their children 's marriages '' belonging to Hinduism system.... `` shown in the South of India, while others translate it as a symbolic manifestation of the population. The birthday of Basava and his contemporaries educated Lingayat families, younger generations enjoy some freedom in the Lingayat.! Rural Lingayats maintain and reinforce their kinship relations through uncleniece, cross-cousin, and more specifically service... The aya system, in which brother-sister relations continued even after the parents ' deaths in some texts! Impact on 100 seats out of mud and stone, or according to Chandan Gowda Hanchiya! Significant number of Lingayats as a personal Ishtalinga successful Lingayats ( published the. Strengthen the marital bonds Literary Committee, Lingayat Education Association of Panchacharyas Basava!

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