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If the applied reverse voltage is increased continuously, the kinetic energy of the minority carriers may become high enough to knock out electrons from the semiconductor atom. The V-I characteristics of a diode can be forward or reverse. The basic device formed from this p-n junction is of two terminals. Explain forward biasing in a p-n junction diode with the help of diagrams. Using circuit diagram and graphs, explain the V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode in forward biasing and in reverse biasing. This space charge region on both sides of the p-n junction taken together is called depletion layer or region because it has no mobile charges (Figure 4). The battery voltage at which the forward current starts increasing rapidly is known as  knee voltage (Vk) or threshold voltage or cut in voltage (figure 11). Avalanche break down:-If both p-side and n-side of the diode are lightly doped, depletion region at the junction widens. As a result of this, large electron-hole pairs are produced which diffuse through the junction and hence there is a sudden rise in the reverse current (figure 13). interface or a boundary between two semiconductor material types There is small current due te the minority carriers. But today also the most commonly used diode is a semiconductor diode. Characteristics of a p-n junction diode It generally shows the relation between bias voltage and current of a diode. What is a rectifier ? A p-n junction diode when not connected to a cell or battery is shown in figure 8(A). Normally the voltage is taken along the x-axis and current along y-axis. This type of information may be obtained by a curve known as Volt-Ampere (V-I) characteristics of a practical diode. It is used in the construction of transistors, FET, Gates and many other types of integrated circuits. The holes are positively charged while the electrons negatively charged. In a junction diode, current does not linearly follow applied voltage, so it does not strictly obey Ohm’s law. This potential difference is called potential barrier generally represented as Vb. The forward current increases slowly at first but as soon as the battery voltage is increased with the help of Rheostat  R,the forward current increases rapidly. The V-I characteristics or voltage-current characteristics of the p-n junction diode is shown in the below figure. When a cell is connected in reverse mode to the p-n junction diode as shown in figure 9(B), a potential difference of V volt is applied across the diode. It will allow e- and hole to leak through the space charge region. But when V exceeds V TH, the current suddenly becomes very high. This electric field is directed from positive charge to negative charge across the junction. One terminal of p-n junction diode is Anode and other is cathode. Depletion region created across the pn junction by the initial movement of majority carrier across the junction. The holes (majority carriers) in p-region and electrons(majority carriers) in n-region acquire sufficient energy to overcome the potential barrier across the junction. And Its Types, Explain the working of a junction diode as (i) half wave rectifier and (ii) full wave rectifier. Physics practical to study about PN junction diode and obtain its V-I (voltage, current) characteristics until breakdown voltage and plot graph with diagram. The sum of lh and Ie is the total current flowing through the junction diode i.e., I=Ie +Ih. I am an M.Tech in Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering. The Shockley diode equation models the forward-bias operational characteristics of a p–n junction outside the avalanche (reverse-biased conducting) region. Semiconductor PN Junction Diode is the simplest semiconductor device. The following are the vital characteristics of a PN junction region (junction diode): A semiconductor consists of two types of mobile charge carriers: electrons, and holes. This is referred to as the p-n junction diode. Doping can occur in a semiconductor utilizing donor impurities like antimony, and this is called N-type doping. What really happens inside the diode during the forward bias ? The PN junction region of a Junction Diode has the following important characteristics: Semiconductors contain two types of mobile charge carriers, “Holes” and “Electrons”. The two important processes called diffusion and drift occur during the formation of p-n junction. Non Ideal PN Junction [2] Real diode characteristics V A high level injection recombination at depletion ideal resistive log(I) •At low current, the measured current is larger than the ideal current •When the bias voltage increase to close to V Bi, the diode current, the current increase is slowed down Mansunansun The Volt-Ampere or V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode is basically the curve between voltage across the junction and the circuit current. As a result of this, holes in the p-region and electrons in the region cannot cross through the junction. ... P-N Junction Diode Formation ,Work & Its Characteristics. However, unlike a resistor, a diode does not behave linearly with respect to the applied voltage as the diode has an exponential current-voltage (I-V) relationship. Volt-ampere (V-I) characteristics of a pn junction or semiconductor diode is the curve between voltage across the junction and the current through the circuit. Here, the characteristics is the graph where the voltage is plotted on the X-Axis and the Current on the Y-Axis. When, V is positive the junction is forward biased, and when V is negative, the junction is reverse biased. PN junction is formed by bringing a P type material in contact with N type material. Therefore, the flow of current in the diode is almost stopped. When a cell or a battery is connected across the p-n junction diode such that positive terminal is connected to p-region and negative terminal is connected to n-region (figure 8(b)]. If the reverse bias in increased to a high value, the covalent bonds near the junction break down and a large number of electron-hole pairs are liberated. A p-n junction  is said to be reverse biased when the positive terminal of a cell or a battery is connected to the n-side and  negative terminal is connected to the p-side of the p-n junction diode. PN Junction Diode Characteristics The following are the vital characteristics of a PN junction region (junction diode): A semiconductor consists of two types of mobile charge carriers: electrons, and holes. PN JUNCTION DIODE AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS In chapter 1– Understanding the PN junction, we have seen how a PN junction is formed from a p-type and n-type semiconductor. Diode has two types of resistances i.e. It is because in this region the external voltage applied to the pn junction is used in overcoming the potential barrier. The V-I characteristics or voltage-current characteristics of the p-n junction diode is shown in the below figure.The horizontal line in the below figure represents the amount of voltage applied across the p-n junction diode whereas the vertical line represents the amount of current flows in the p-n junction diode. (1), it is a two-terminal device where the terminal A stands for … Form this instant, the current increases with the increase in forward voltage. Learn more about how pn junction diode works and its VI characteristics here Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. This results in reduced potential barrier. As we already know, there are few free electrons in p-type material and few holes in n-type material. This is knows as reverse saturation current(IS) and it is due to the minority carriers in the junction. Symbolic representation of a p-n junction diode is given in figure 7(B): The arrowhead represents p -type semiconductor and the vertical bar represents n-type semiconductor. Doping can occur in a What is a depletion layer or depletion region or space charge ? The thickness of depletion layer is about (0-5 um.). In forward biased condition , p-type of the pn junction is connected to the positive terminal and n-type is connected to the negative terminal of the external voltage. PN Junction Diode VI Characteristics. 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