apathy evaluation scale subscales

Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. The Benjamini and Hochberg method was used to control for false discovery on multiple comparisons [31]. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of evaluation between families and nurses in assessing patients’ apathy. A test-retest reliability study demonstrated that caregiver responses to IA questions were stable over short intervals. While SM correlated significantly with BA and ES components of motivation, BA did not correlate significantly with ES. The BDI is 21-item scale that measures the severity of depression. Overall, these findings indicated that the AMI had good construct validity. Results: BA relates to an individual’s tendency to self-initiate goal-directed behaviour, SM examines a person’s engagement of social interactions and ES probes an individual’s feelings of positive and negative affection. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t001. Each item relates to a symptom of depression, e.g., hopelessness, and was scored on a 4-point Likert scale (0–3: 0 = least severe, 3 = most severe). Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Rather than discuss every individual association between the scale/subscales, we highlight key findings here. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.g002. They showed adequate values, indicating acceptable internal consistency (αoverall = 0.77, αBA = 0.79, αSM = 0.75, αES = 0.75). The Person–Environment Apathy Rating (PEAR) scale consists of environment and apathy subscales, which allow for examination of environmental impact on apathy. The AMI is a novel and reliable measure of individual differences in apathy and might provide a useful means of probing different mechanisms underlying sub-clinical lack of motivation in otherwise healthy individuals. The scale includes a compre- Each item was rated on a 4-point Likert scale, with a higher score indicating greater apathy (0–3: 0 = ‘Almost Always’, 3 = ‘Hardly Ever’ for positively scored items). We evaluated 115 subjects using the IA, consisting of 19 healthy elderly subjects, 24 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), 12 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 60 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our data suggest that there may be particular subtypes of apathy that are more likely to co-occur with these symptoms. Key Descriptions. Anhedonia is a mood disorder characterised by an inability to derive pleasure. Brain Imaging Behav. The findings presented here show for the first time that apathy in the healthy population can be dissected into four subtypes: ‘emotionally apathetic’, ‘behaviourally/socially apathetic’, ‘generally motivated’ and ‘generally apathetic’. Exclusion criteria were self-reported neurological or psychiatric disorder. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) was developed as a method for measuring apathy resulting from brain-related pathology. Comparing these two subscales to the conceptualisation of apathy by Levy and Dubois [2] suggests that the BA subscale likely encompasses the ‘cognitive’ and ‘auto-activation’ aspects, while the ES domain appears to correspond more to the ‘emotional-affective’ subtype. The SHAPS is a 14-item scale that assesses hedonic tone, or ability to experience pleasure. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.s002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.s003. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.g004. The Irritability subscale includes poor temper control, verbal and physical aggression, behavioral inflexibility, and … Background: Apathy is usually defined as reduced interest and participation in various activities. Results of factor analyses—both exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA)–in large samples indicated that the AMI has a clear three-factor structure with good psychometric properties. Recently, the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS), a semistructured interview yielding a global score, and composite subscores for different domains of apathy (i.e., cognitive, behavioral, affective, self awareness), was developed and given to a sample of patients with PD in … All post-hoc comparison differences were significant at p < 0.05 (Emotionally apathetic: BDI mean = 8.0, SD = 8.8, SHAPS mean = 47.6, SD = 5.6, MFIS mean = 20.9, SD = 14.0; Behaviourally/socially apathetic: BDI mean = 16.2, SD = 11.8, SHAPS mean = 45.7, SD = 5.8, MFIS mean = 34.9, SD = 17.6; Generally motivated: BDI mean = 9.7, SD = 9.0, SHAPS mean = 50.4, SD = 4.9, MFIS mean = 29.3, SD = 17.3; Generally apathetic: BDI mean = 12.8, SD = 13.0, SHAPS mean = 42.3, SD = 6.6, MFIS mean = 29.3, SD = 26.7). Model fit was assessed using RMSEA, SRMR, and Comparative Fit Index (CFI). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.g003. In this study we used the CAS3, the scale for assessment of spontaneity about patients’ ADL. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of evaluation between families and nurses in assessing patients’ apathy. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938, Editor: Maria Gulinello, Yeshiva University Albert Einstein College of Medicine, UNITED STATES, Received: September 25, 2016; Accepted: December 22, 2016; Published: January 11, 2017. However, currently there are no validated assessments of apathy in healthy people. All three AMI subscales were negatively correlated with the SHAPS (lower scores indicate higher levels of anhedonia), suggesting that higher apathy was associated with lower hedonia. Funding: This research was supported by a Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellowship to MH, an A*STAR National Science Scholarship to YA, a BBSRC Anniversary Future Leader Fellowship (BB/M013596/1) to MAJA, and a Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Training Fellowship to KM. In support, we found that all subscales of the AMI were related to the SHAPS. Conversely, the ES subscale correlated negatively with these MFIS domains. Sheelakumari R, Bineesh C, Varghese T, Kesavadas C, Verghese J, Mathuranath PS. Value in screening for Alzheimer's disease and depressive disorders in psychiatric practice]. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the scale and subscales were also satisfactory, indicating stable responses across time (roverall: 0.83, rBA: 0.88, rSM: 0.84, rES: 0.72). Each individual’s probability of class membership was also estimated together with the overall model so that they can be placed into the appropriate class. BA and SM correlated positively with BDI and MFIS, indicating that individuals that were more apathetic on these subscales also had higher levels of depression and fatigue. AES-C was significantly correlated with PSP total score as well as its subscales for social useful activities, personal and social relationships, and self-care. Epub 2012 Aug 24. Each item was reverse-scored so that a higher rating indicated more apathy. All participants gave written informed consent and the study was approved by the University of Oxford ethics committee. Information for the IA can be obtained from the patient or from a caregiver. In the caregiver-based evaluation, AD subjects had significantly higher scores than controls, both for global apathy score and for the lack of interest dimension. 2012 Aug-Sep;168(8-9):598-604. doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2012.05.002. When the AD patients were subdivided according to diagnostic criteria for apathy, apathetic patients had significantly higher scores than non apathetic patients. This is an 18-item scale that addresses behavioral, emotional, and cognitive aspects of apathy. The most psychometrically robust measures for assessing apathy across any disease population appear to be the Apathy Evaluation Scale and the apathy subscale of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory based on the criteria set in this review. This raises the question of the extent to which apathy can be meaningfully distinguished from these other conditions and whether they might perhaps be associated with discrete dimensions of apathy in healthy individuals. Maintenance of occupational therapy (OT) for dementia: protocol of a multi-center, randomized controlled and pragmatic trial. 2003 May-Jun;29(3 Pt 1):266-72. Yes Whilst many tools have been developed to assess levels of apathy in clinical disorders, surprisingly there are no measures of apathy suitable for healthy people. Data from a new group of 479 people recruited via online adverts and Prolific Academic (www.prolific.ac) was used for the analysis (for demographic information see Table 2). Finally, the AMI total score was negatively correlated with the SHAPS (r = - 0.46, p < 0.01), indicating that apathetic people experience greater anhedonia. CAS consisted of five subscales to measure multiple viewpoints of apathy. Also, using abnormality cutoffs, 58% in this group were impaired on at least two apathy subscales, the most common of which was Executive and Initiation apathy, with only 37% displaying global apathy over all DAS subscales and 5% displaying one apathy subscale. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. A concurrent validity study showed that the IA assesses apathy as effectively as the Neuro Psychiatric Inventory apathy domain. Apathy was assessed using the 18-item clinician-rated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES).15 The AES was only administered at 2011 and 2015, precluding an analysis of baseline AES scores. Apathy s rating scales are useful tools for this and they are important to evaluate future therapeutic inter-ventions. Distinguishing apathy from depression is challenging due to the overlaps in symptoms, e.g., lack of initiation. No, Is the Subject Area "Depression" applicable to this article? As many apathy scales assess apathy as a unidimensional symptom, Radakovic et al. No, Is the Subject Area "Motivation" applicable to this article? Cognitive deficits due to damage or disease affecting frontal lobe systems are well known to clinical neuroscientists. The items are rated on a 4‐point Likert scale from 1 (not at all characteristic) to 4 (very characteristic). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with promax rotation was conducted in MPlus [22] to examine the latent structure of this 51-item apathy questionnaire. Method: RESULTS: The PEAR-Environment subscale and PEAR-Apathy subscales each consists of six items rated on a 1-4 scale. To examine whether we could identify distinct profiles of apathy and how these are differentially predictive of comorbid states (depression, anhedonia and fatigue), we conducted a latent profile analysis (LPA) [32] using the data acquired in study 2. The variability of the prevalence rate might depend on the type of assessment used to detect apathy (e.g., Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Figved et al., 2005, or Apathy Evaluation Scale, AES, Raimo et al., 2014), and might be influenced by severity of disease-related disability.  |  Here we developed the Apathy Motivation Index (AMI; Table 1), a new instrument suitable for assessing levels of apathy and motivation in the healthy population. Furthermore, the 4- and 5-class models had the lowest AIC and BIC values. Conclusions: A simple three-factor structure was the most parsimonious account of the data. Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Affiliations The AMI consists of three subscales: Behavioural Activation, Social Motivation and Emotional Sensitivity. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.g001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t004. The Lo-Mendell-Rubin Adjusted Likelihood Ratio Test [33] (LMRT) and Bootstrapped Likelihood Ratio Test (BLRT) [32] compares the fit of the current model with K classes to one with K-1 classes. [ ] proposed the apathy evaluation scale (AES) based on his 6 It consists of an 18‐item questionnaire to evaluate behavior, cognition and emotion subscales. 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